Granville Sharpe was born on
this date. He was a European abolitionist and philanthropist.
From Durham, England, his father was archdeacon.
In 1748, Sharpe attended grammar school in Durham;
moving to London
to work with a Quaker merchant. Over the next ten years he taught himself Greek
and Hebrew. In 1765, he began working in civil service as a minor clerk. Sharpe
had a brother who was a doctor in London.
One day on a visit to his office he met a Black slave, (Jonathon Strong), who
had been beaten by his master and left to die. Sharpe’s brother helped the
Two years later the master spotted his slave, secretly sold him to another
slave owner trying to conspire to have Strong kidnapped and sent back into
slavery in Jamaica.
Strong appealed to Sharpe for help. Sharpe brought his case before the Lord
Mayor of London,
who decided that Strong was a free man. Sharpe’s 1769 anti-slavery publication
provided legal arguments that attacked the ruling made by Yorke and Talbot in
1729 that slaves remain the property of their owners in England as well
as in the colonies. Between 1765 and 1770, Sharpe also began defending
“shanghai-ed” slaves and former slaves.
The courts never granted Sharpe a broad anti-slavery ruling, but the individual
cases were usually decided in Sharpe’s favor. In 1772, Sharpe was involved in
another legal case that is historically called the Charter of Freedom. Here it
was written, “England
is a soil whose air is deemed too pure for slaves to breathe in.” Sharpe also
was involved in creating a colony in Africa
for relocated slaves. Later known as Freetown,
the colony was in present day Sierra
Leone. Though the colony was not well
planned, 397 Blacks sailed there; ten years later the colony was a failure.
He worked closely with Thomas Clarkson and William Wilberforce and opposed the
British war in 1776 with the United
States. A co-founder of the American Episcopalian Church,
in 1787 Sharp and others formed the Society for the Abolition of the Slave
Trade. That same year he published his pamphlet, A Summary View of the Slave
Trade and of the Probable Consequences of Its Abolition. After the passing of
the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act in 1807 Sharp and others formed the
Society for the Mitigation and Gradual Abolition of Slavery.
However, Granville Sharp was not to see the final abolition of slavery, he died
on July 6, 1813.
The African Union
Society of Newport,
Rhode Island, was the first
attested Black mutual aid society.
date, the confessions of Nat Turner occurred.
After (slave) Nat Turner was captured, a Baltimore
lawyer, Thomas R. Gray,
interviewed him in jail. Turner give in detail the how’s and why’s of his
actions of August 21, 1831. On that date in a slave uprising orchestrated by
him 55 Whites were killed.
of Wiley College is
celebrated on this date. It is one of over 100 American Historical
The College was founded in 1873 by the Methodist Episcopal Church and chartered
by the Freedman’s Aid Society in 1882. Its mission at the time was for the
purpose of providing education to the “newly freed men” and preparing them for
a new life. The College is currently affiliated with the United Methodist
students of other races, as well as international students, are finding Wiley College
to be an appealing place to obtain a college education.
The campus of Wiley
College is comprised of
14 permanent structures for teaching, learning, and research as well as
residential housing for students. Wiley
College is one of three institutions
of higher learning found in Marshall,
Texas. The school is located in Harrison County
on 63 acres of land between Dallas to the west
to the east. This location offers access to the cities and a perfect
environment for students’ learning and intellectual growth away from the hustle
and bustle of urban life. Initially, the purpose of Wiley College
was to focus mainly on training teachers for careers at Black elementary and
It has since grown from a vocational college to an institution awarding
Associate’s degrees and Bachelor’s degrees in 21 areas including, English,
biology, business, computer science, and social sciences, etc. Also Wiley is
recognized for providing higher education opportunities to non-traditional
students through its management institute program. Wiley
College is the first school in East Texas to issue laptop computers to its students and
faculty; thus preparing its students for the marketplace.
The school has one of the best student-faculty ratios in the nation. Dr.
Haywood Strickland was elected the 16th president of Wiley College
on September 12, 2000.
Granville T. Woods patented the electric railway.
date, the Wilmington race riot took place. The events of that day
represent a landmark in North
Over a century later some details are still in question. The number of victims,
for example, is disputed with the total running from the coroner’s fourteen to
unconfirmed reports of scores or even hundreds of deaths. All of the reported
victims were African-American. Reports circulated in the midst of the violence
of the shooting of a white man, Will Mayo. His fate still remains a mystery.
More certain is the fact that the event marked the climax of the white
supremacy campaign of 1898 and a turning point in the state’s history.
Restrictions on African-American voting followed marking the onset of the Jim
Crow era of segregation. Though termed a “race riot” it has also been called a
massacre, rebellion, revolt, race war, and coup d’etat. The unusual situation
of the Wilmington
events, involving the removal of the legally elected mayor and city council and
installation of revolt leader Alfred Moore Waddell, make this last term
technically correct. In the days preceding the election of 1898 Waddell, a
former Confederate officer and U. S. Congressman, called for the removal of the
Republicans and Populists then in power in Wilmington and proposed in a speech
at Thalian Hall that the white citizens, if necessary, “choke the Cape Fear
What had particularly incensed Waddell and others was the publication in August
of an editorial in the Wilmington Daily Record, a local black-owned newspaper.
Alex Manly, the editor, charged that, “poor white men are careless in the
matter of protecting their women,” and that, “our experience among poor white
people in the country teaches us that women of that race are not any more
particular in the matter of clandestine meetings with colored men than the
white men with the colored women.” The sexually charged editorial, reprinted
across the state, provided Democrats with an issue to inflame racial tensions
as election day approached. Yet the day passed without notable incident.
At eight o’clock in the morning two days later (November 10, 1898) about 500
white men assembled at the armory of the Wilmington Light Infantry. After
several others declined, Waddell led them to the Daily Record office in Free
Love Hall four blocks south on Seventh Street between Nun and Church Streets.
The crowd swelled to nearly 2,000 as they moved across town. Manly, in the
meantime, had fled the city, as had numerous other African-Americans, in
expectation of violence.
The mob broke into the building, a fire broke out, and the top floor of the
building was consumed. The crowd posed for a photograph in front of the
The National Benefit Life Insurance Company is organized in Washington, DC by Samuel W. Rutherford. National Benefit will be the largest African American insurance company
for several years.
George P. White was an outspoken Republican political leader, two-term Congressman
from the “Black 2nd” (northeastern North Carolina). He introduced
the first anti-lynching legislation into the Congress (it was defeated),
founded the first black bank, and, after leaving North Carolina in the wake of
Black disenfranchisement in 1901, founded an all black community called
Whiteville near Trenton, New Jersey. After White left, it would be seventy
years before North Carolina sent another African American to the US Congress.
Moise Tshombe is born. He will lead a secessionist movement in Katanga, the Congo’s
(Zaire) richest province in 1960, following independence from Belgium. Tshombe
will end his secession and accept a UN-brokered National Conciliation Plan in
January 1963. Eighteen months of further negotiations will lead to him being
appointed Prime Minister, but he will go into exile in 1965. He will join the
ancestors in 1969.
date, Clarence Pendleton, Jr. was born.
He was an African-American politician.
From Louisville, KY, Clarence McClane Pendleton was raised in Washington D.C.,
attending Dunbar High School and receiving a B.S. from Howard University in
1954, and a masters degree in 1961 while coaching swimming, football, rowing,
and baseball. In between he served in the medical unit of the U. S. Army for
three years. From 1968 to 1972, Pendleton was employed with the Baltimore Model
Cities Program, director of the Urban Affairs Department of the National
Recreation and Parks Association, and head of the San Diego Model Cities
Program and that city’s Urban League.
In 1980, his philosophy changed; he began to feel that African American
reliance on government programs was trapping them in a cycle of dependence and
welfare handouts. Pendleton believed that it was in better interest for blacks
to build strong relations with the expanding private sector and give up the
more familiar ties with liberal bureaucrats and philosophies. To this end he
supported Ronald Reagan to the presidency and was appointed chairman of the
Civil Rights Commission in 1981.
His tenure there was controversial due to his stance on affirmative action and
forced busing to achieve de-segregation. Clarence Pendleton died of a heart
attack on June 5th 1988.
McGurie, a Bishop who founded the African Orthodox
Church, died in New York on this date.
Hosea Richardson becomes the first African American jockey to ride in Florida.
David Adkin is born in Benton Harbor, Michigan. He will become a comedian and
actor, better known as “Sinbad.” He will get his big break on television’s “Star
Search” in 1984. He will appear in the television series “Different World,” and
become the emcee of “Showtime at the Apollo.” His movie credits will include “Necessary
Roughness,” “The Meteor Man,” “Coneheads,” “Sinbad-Afros and Bellbottoms,” “The
Frog Prince,” “The Cherokee Kid,” “Jingle All The Way,” “First Kid,” “ and “Good
Burger.” He will also produce and emcee the successful “Soul Music Festivals”
held annually in Caribbean countries.
Charlie Sifford becomes the first African American to win a major professional golf
tournament, by winning the Long Beach Open.
Andrew J. Hatcher is named Associate Press Secretary to President-elect John F. Kennedy.
He is the highest-ranking African American, appointed to date, in the executive
branch and the first Black Press Secretary.
Ida Cox, blues
singer of such songs as “Wild Women Don’t Have the Blues,” joins the ancestors
in Knoxville, Tennessee.
The Rhythm and Blues Foundation presents its first lifetime achievement awards in Washington DC. Among
the honorees are bluesmen Charles
Brown, Ruth Brown, Percy Sledge (“When a Man Loves a Woman”), and Mary Wells (“My Guy”).
Carmen McRae, a noted Jazz singer, died on this date.
Augustus “Gus” Hawkins died on this date in Maryland
of natural causes. As of the date of his death, he was the oldest living
ex-member of Congress. Born on August 31, 1907, he was 100.
Hawkins made history, becoming the first Black from California
to be elected from California
to be elected to Congress.
born in Shreveport, LA,
but his family moved to Los Angeles
when he was ten. Later, he earned a degree in economics from UCLA and did
graduate studies at the University of Southern California’s Institute of Government.
first major political victory was winning election in the mid 1930s to the California legislature,
where he worked 28 years. His crowning achievement there was passage of California’s Fair
Employment Practices Act in 1959. Three years later, he defeated the GOP
incumbent to win his history-making seat in the U.S. Congress.
next 28 years in the nation’s capital, Hawkins would help create the
Congressional Black Caucus and, later, become chairman of the House Education
and Labor Committee and the House Administration Committee.
Representing South Los Angeles, Hawkins played key roles on several
historic pieces of national legislation, including the Job Training Partnership
Act and the landmark 1964 Civil Rights Act. He worked tirelessly to raise the
minimum wage and is best known for the Humphrey-Hawkins Full Employment and
Balanced Growth Act in 1978 that was designed to reduce unemployment and
from Congress in 1990 and, over his 56 years of public service, sponsored more than
300 state and federal laws.