African military genius, crosses the Alps with elephants and 26,000 men in an
expedition to capture Rome.
and Clark reach the mouth of the Columbia
River. Accompanying them on their expedition is a slave named York, who, while
technically Clark’s valet, distinguished
himself as a scout, interpreter, and emissary to the Native Americans
encountered on the expedition.
date, Sarah Jane Early was born.
She was a Black teacher, abolitionist, and feminist.
From Chillicothe, Ohio Sarah Jane Woodson Early was the
daughter of Thomas and Jermimma Woodson. Much of her feminist and Black
community involvement took place through the African Methodist Church (AME) and
a number of black educational institutions. In 1856, she earned an L. B. degree
from Oberlin College, becoming one of the first Black
women to receive a college degree. From 1859 to 1860, while working at Wilberforce University, Early became the first black
woman college faculty member.
She taught in a number of Ohio’s Black
community schools and from 1860 to 1861, was a principal of the schools in Xenia, Ohio.
In 1868, Early went to teach at a school for Black girls in Hillsborough, North Carolina
run by the Freedmen’s Bureau. That same year she married Rev. Jordan W. Early,
a pioneer in the AME
Church movement. She
assisted in his ministry while teach throughout the South and in 1894, she
chronicled her husbands work in the book, The Life and Labors of Re. J. W.
Preaching and practicing her belief in the role of Black women in racial
uplift, Early was appointed Superintendent of the Colored Division of the
Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) in 1888. Sarah Early died in August
date, the Pilgrim Baptist Church in St. Paul, Minnesota
was formally organized with its first service.
Rev. Robert Hickman and others were primarily responsible for this spiritual
endeavor. That day a baptismal service on the shores of the Mississippi
River was held climaxing three long years of hard effort. From the
onset, it was not an easy task for the Founders of Pilgrim. Their story began
in 1863, with a group of brave Black men, women and children from Missouri. These Black
migrants traveled North in search of work and a new way of life. Accounts on
how this group came to Minnesota
are mixed but not contradictory.
One states that a group of Negroes escaped from Boone County, Missouri,
received protection by Union forces and aid by the Underground Railroad. They
were smuggled aboard the steamer “War Eagle” and taken north. These Blacks
referred to themselves as “Pilgrims;” Hickman was among them. His prayer group
held services in their homes in downtown St.
Paul. Finally in November 1863, they succeeded in
renting the lodge room of the God Temples in the Concert Hall
Building on Third Street.
Hickman sought and received mission status from the First Baptist Church of St.
Paul in January 1864.
Between 1864 and 1866 the Black parishioners continued to worship separately
under Hickman’s direction. It was also established with help from the Ladies
Aid Society to serve the Black community of St. Paul. The charter members of Pilgrim were
Rev. and Mrs. Hickman, Fielding Combs, Henry Moffitt, John Trotter, Giles
Crenshaw and members of their families. This group requested the trustees of
First Baptist to intercede and purchase in trust a lot costing $200.00 on which
they would build Pilgrim
The first building was on a lot located on Sibley near Morris Street. It was built with stone
and wood, with a seating capacity of 300 for $2400, including the lot. A
portion of the white First Baptist Church of St. Anthony, Minneapolis, which was being razed, was used in the construction.
Their first two ministers, William Norris (1866-1868) and Andrew Torbert
(1868-1877) were white. Robert Hickman, the leader and natural candidate for
the position of minister was not chosen. During this time, his role was clerk
of the congregation and he attended yearly denominational meetings. He was eventually
licensed to preach in 1874 and ordained in 1875. Hickman’s becoming the
congregation’s official minister in 1878, ended its white ministry. Pilgrim Baptist
Church of St. Paul
is one of the oldest African-American Churches in Minnesota. Dr. Robert L. Stephens is the
Conference of European nations is organized
by German Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck to decide issues regarding the
colonization of Africa. The Europeans
attending the conference decide which parts of the African continent would be “owned”
by the participants, “allowing” only Liberia
to remain free countries. Representatives from Great
Germany, Portugal, and Belgium negotiate their claims to
African territory and establish a framework for making and negotiating future
claims. Obviously, there is no one representing Africans at this conference. By
1900, nearly 90 percent of African territory will be claimed by
T. Woods patented his Synchronous
Multiplier Railway Telegraph. Patent #373,383.
Dr. Daniel Hale
Williams founded the Freedmen’s Hospital School of Nursing on this date. The school was transferred to Howard University
in 1969 and had graduated 1,700 nurses when it closed in 1973.
Langston University, a public co-educational institution, is founded in Langston, Oklahoma.
Voorhees College, a private co-educational institution affiliated with the Episcopal
Church, is founded in Denmark,
John Mercer Langston joins the ancestors at the age of 67, in Washington, DC.
Lyda A. Newman of New York City, NY patented the Synthetic Brush, a hair
brush containing synthetic bristles, which permitted easy cleaning by having a
detachable unit which carried the brush and bristles. Patent #614,335.
Ruth Nita Barrow was born on
this date. She was a Jamaican nurse, politician, and administrator.
From Barbados at Nesfield,
St. Lucy she trained as a nurse, midwife and health care administrator, holding
a variety of nursing, public health and public administration jobs in Barbados and Jamaica in the 1940s and 1950s.
Barrow made her contributions in several arenas; her most prominent
contributions were in nursing education and with the YWCA. She worked on the
professional organization of nurses and the establishment of quality nursing
Her accomplishments in all the areas in which she chose to work is phenomenal.
One has only to look at a few of the highlights of her career. She was the
first World Health Organization Nurse from the Caribbean, the first president
of the Jamaica Nurses Association, the first Black Caribbean woman to be
appointed to a senior post by the Colonial Office in the Caribbean and the
first Black president of the World Wide YWCA in 1975.
Before her retirement in 1980, she was the first woman Director of the
Christian Medical Commission (CMC), which is the health arm of the World
Council of Churches. She was the convener of the 1985 NGO forum held in Nairobi, Kenya,
and Barbados’ prominent
representative to the United Nations and the only woman on the eminent person’s
group which the commonwealth Secretariat appointed to attempt a rapprochement
in South Africa.
The opportunities for training were taken up as they came and Nita Barrow moved
from nurse to nursing instructor at the School
of Public Health in Jamaica, to
consultant for the World Health Organization.
She was acclaimed all over the world for her skill, graciousness and talent in
convening the Decade of Women non-governmental forum in Nairobi in 1985. There were over 1,300
workshops and thousands of women from the world over. Many of these women were
on opposite sides of the political fence and Nita Barrow and her staff ensured
the smooth running of this potentially volatile event.
In 1986, she was appointed Barbados’
permanent representative to the United Nations. She was in the Commonwealth’s
eminent person’s group that tried to get the opposing parties in South Africa to
a negotiating table. She has received two honorary doctorates, one from MacMaster University
in Canada and one from the
University of the West Indies, an Honorary
Fellow from Royal College of Nursing, Great Britain. Barrow was the Governor-general
of Barbados from Jun 1990 to her death on December 19, 1995.
Roland Hayes opens his fifth American Tour at New York’s Carnegie Hall packed with
Whitman Mayo was born this date. He was an
Mayo was born in New York City, attended Los Angeles City
College and the University
of California at Los Angeles. Following college, he spent
seven years as a counselor at an institution for delinquent boys. He left
counseling and turned to acting while pick-up odd jobs, picking grapes, working
at a dairy, and as a railroad worker. He also spent a year in Mexico playing
professional volleyball. Mayo moved to New
York where while at the New Lafayette Theater that he
landed a guest appearance as “Grady Wilson” on Sanford and Son.
Mayo modeled the character after his own grandfather and few viewers realized
that Mayo was actually only in his early 40s. The role quickly turned into a
recurring character and was eventually spun-off (for television) as the star of
the short-lived Grady. Mayo went on to appear on shows such as Different
Strokes, Hill Street Blues, and ER. In his later years, Mayo was on the faculty
of Clark Atlanta University, where he taught acting. Whitman Mayo died on May
Yaphet Kotto was born on this date. He is an
African American actor.
Yaphet Frederick Kotto was born in
New York City. His father was an Igbo Jewish man from Cameroon and Kotto is a
practicing Jew by faith. His father was royalty in Cameroon making Yaphet the
son of the Crown Prince of the Royal Bell family of the Doualla region of West
He recently claimed to have uncovered proof that he is the
great-great-great-grandson of Britain’s Queen Victoria. According to Kotto, the
queen’s son Prince Albert Edward VII had an illicit affair with Princess
Nakande, daughter of King Doualla Manga Bell, producing the light-skinned
Alexander Bell, Kotto’s great-grandfather, but the deputy press secretary to
Queen Elizabeth categorically refuted the story saying, “... Edward VII never
Kotto got his start in acting on Broadway, where he appeared in The Great
White Hope, among other productions. His film debut was in 1963 in an
unaccredited role in 4 For Texas, but his first big break came in Nothing
But a Man in 1964. Later, he landed the role of the James Bond villain Mr.
Big in Live and Let Die, as well as roles in Across 110th
Street and Truck Turner.
He also starred as an auto worker in Blue Collar. The following year he
played one of his best-known roles, as Parker in the successful film Alien.
He also played a Baltimore police Lieutenant Al Giardello in the television
series Homicide: Life on the Street. Kotto’s son Fredrick is a police
officer with the city of San Jose, California. He also starred in other
productions such as Brubaker, the made for television movie, Raid
on Entebbe, where he played Ugandan dictator, Idi Amin, Eye of the Tiger, the historic and
landmark television mini series, Roots,
and Midnight Run.
Dr. Arthur Dorrington, a dentist, becomes the first African American in organized hockey to
suit up, a member of the Atlantic City Seagulls of the Eastern Amateur Hockey
League. He was a native of Nova Scotia. After U.S. Army service, he
signed with New York Rangers with one of team’s farm clubs in 1950 but chose
instead to play for Atlantic City Seagulls of Easter League. He led them to
league championship in 1951. After a career-ending injury, he built a second
profession as officer in Atlantic County Sheriff’s Department.
Willie Mays, New York Giants’ center fielder, was named National League “Rookie of
the Year” by the Baseball Writers Association of America.
Elgin Baylor, of the Los Angeles Lakers scores 71 points against the New York
The Amistad Research Center is incorporated as an independent archive, library, & museum
dedicated to preserving African American & ethnic history and culture. The
center collects original source materials on the history of the nation’s ethnic
minorities and race relations in the United States (over 10 million documents).
The Amistad was organized by the Race Relations Department of Fisk University
and the American Missionary Association in 1966. The library is now located in
Tilton Hall on the campus of Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana.
The Plains Baptist Church, home church of President
Jimmy Carter, votes to admit African American
worshipers. The church had been under pressure to admit African Americans since
King had announced his intentions to join the congregation.
The Nobel Prize in economics is awarded to Professor Arthur Lewis of Princeton University. He is
the first African American to receive the coveted prize in a category other
The NAACP’s Spingarn Medal is awarded to Rosa L. Parks, who was the Catalyst in the Montgomery, Alabama bus boycott of
President George Bush signs a bill to rename a Houston, Texas, federal building after George Thomas “Mickey” Leland, the Houston congressman who died in a plane crash earlier in the
On this day, the US Golf Association banned racial & gender discrimination.
Kwame Ture succumbs to prostate cancer in Guinea and joins the ancestors at age
57. He was born Stokely
Carmichael in the country of Trinidad (1941) and in
1966 coined the phrase, “Black Power.”